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Mau Mau Kenyan political movement. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The actions attributed to the Mau Mau caused the colonial government to proclaim a state of emergency from October until and also resulted in a massive relocation of Africans, particularly Kikuyu.
Kenyatta and other Africans were charged with directing the Mau…. On October 21, , Kenyatta was arrested on charges of having directed the Mau Mau movement.
During the Mau Mau rebellion of the s, however, the British colonial government moved the Kikuyu into villages for reasons of security. The economic advantages of village settlement and land consolidation led many Kikuyu to continue this arrangement after the emergency was ended.
The local community unit…. Jomo Kenyatta, African statesman and nationalist, the first prime minister —64 and then the first president —78 of independent Kenya.
His father was a leader of a small Kikuyu…. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Help us improve this article!
Contact our editors with your feedback. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.Ziel ist es natürlich, dass man vor allen anderen Spielern alle seine Karten auf der Hand loswerden muss, was sich aber oftmals gar nicht als so einfach gestaltet, da man die Karten nicht einfach nach belieben ablegen kann, sondern immer passend ablegen muss. Mau mau eine 9 fällt, erfolgt ein Richtungswechsel. Watt has du'n fuern kaatenspiel?? Er darf die erste Karte ausspielen! Wenn man ihn also bis fast zum Schluss aufheben möchte, ist das durchaus riskant! Beste Spielothek in Starkenhofen finden Hofkarten haben Sonderwerte: Auch bei der Punktezählung gibt es natürlich Varianten: Mit welchen Karten und wieviel Personen spielt man Mau-Mau? Regeln Spielanleitung Blatt Spickzettel International. Automaten gewinne echten Freunden spielen.
But radical activists within the KAU set up a splinter group and organised a more militant kind of nationalism.
By Kikuyu fighters, along with some Embu and Meru recruits, were attacking political opponents and raiding white settler farms and destroying livestock.
Mau Mau supporters took oaths, binding them to their cause. In October the British declared a state of emergency and began moving army reinforcements into Kenya.
So began an aggressively fought counter-insurgency, which lasted until when the state of emergency was ended. The number killed in the uprising is a subject of much controversy.
Officially the number of Mau Mau and other rebels killed was 11,, including 1, convicts hanged by the British administration.
Just 32 white settlers were killed in the eight years of emergency. However, unofficial figures suggest a much larger number were killed in the counter-insurgency campaign.
The Kenya Human Rights Commission has said 90, Kenyans were executed, tortured or maimed during the crackdown, and , were detained in appalling conditions.
David Anderson, professor of African Politics at Oxford University, says he estimates the death toll in the conflict to have been as high as 25, Allegations about beatings and violence were widespread.
Basically you could get away with murder. The African Home Guard, recruited by the British, used oppressive violence as a means of controlling the population, Prof Anderson suggests.
People would simply walk up to the farm and walk away with things. In addition to search-and-destroy missions against Mau Mau fighter bands operating in the forests, the British also strategically resettled Kikuyu in villages.
They also detained some , Kikuyu without trial, often for periods of between three and seven years.
One has died since the case was lodged. The firm says its clients suffered terribly in detention camps or at the hands of British-led soldiers.
The women were sexually assaulted. Two of the men were castrated. The most severe gruesome torture you could imagine.
It wasn't just isolated individual officers. The whole purpose was to break the Mau Mau. The UK says the claim is not valid because of the amount of time since the abuses were alleged to have happened, and that any liability rested with the Kenyan authorities after independence in This was a dirty war.
It became a civil war - though that idea remains extremely unpopular in Kenya today. One example was the Mau Mau raid on the "loyalist" village of Lari, where the majority of the men were away fighting with the British Home Guard.
You can help by adding to it. It is often assumed that in a conflict there are two sides in opposition to one another, and that a person who is not actively committed to one side must be supporting the other.
During the course of a conflict, leaders on both sides will use this argument to gain active support from the "crowd". In reality, conflicts involving more than two persons usually have more than two sides, and if a resistance movement is to be successful, propaganda and politicization are essential.
Between and , when the fighting was at its worst, the Kikuyu districts of Kenya became a police state in the very fullest sense of that term.
Our sources have produced nothing to indicate that Kenyatta, or his associates in the UK, are directly involved in Mau Mau activities, or that Kenyatta is essential to Mau Mau as a leader, or that he is in a position to direct its activities.
It would be difficult to argue that the colonial government envisioned its own version of a gulag when the Emergency first started.
Colonial officials in Kenya and Britain all believed that Mau Mau would be over in less than three months. One courageous judge in Nairobi explicitly drew the parallel: Kenya's Belsen, he called one camp.
In a half-circle against the reed walls of the enclosure stand eight young, African women. There's neither hate nor apprehension in their gaze.
It's like a talk in the headmistress's study; a headmistress who is firm but kindly. The number of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis which is being disclosed in Prison and Detention Camps is causing some embarrassment.
Short rations, overwork, brutality, humiliating and disgusting treatment and flogging—all in violation of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
At the end of , the Administration were faced with the serious problem of the concealment of terrorists and supply of food to them.
This was widespread and, owing to the scattered nature of the homesteads, fear of detection was negligible; so, in the first instance, the inhabitants of those areas were made to build and live in concentrated villages.
This first step had to be taken speedily, somewhat to the detriment of usual health measures and was definitely a punitive short-term measure.
Whilst they [the Kikuyu] could not be expected to take kindly at first to a departure from their traditional way of life, such as living in villages, they need and desire to be told just what to do.
From the health point of view, I regard villagisation as being exceedingly dangerous and we are already starting to reap the benefits.
The horrors they practiced included the following: No war can justify such gruesome actions. In man's inhumanity to man, there is no race distinction.
The Africans were practicing it on themselves. There was no reason and no restraint on both sides. We knew the slow method of torture [at the Mau Mau Investigation Center] was worse than anything we could do.
Special Branch there had a way of slowly electrocuting a Kuke—they'd rough up one for days. Once I went personally to drop off one gang member who needed special treatment.
I stayed for a few hours to help the boys out, softening him up. Things got a little out of hand. By the time I cut his balls off, he had no ears, and his eyeball, the right one, I think, was hanging out of its socket.
Too bad, he died before we got much out of him. Bottles often broken , gun barrels, knives, snakes, vermin, and hot eggs were thrust up men's rectums and women's vaginas.
The screening teams whipped, shot, burned and mutilated Mau Mau suspects, ostensibly to gather intelligence for military operations and as court evidence.
If we are going to sin, we must sin quietly. Foreign and Commonwealth Office migrated archives. Main criticism we shall have to meet is that 'Cowan plan'  which was approved by Government contained instructions which in effect authorised unlawful use of violence against detainees.
Partisan questions about the Mau Mau war have. How historically necessary was Mau Mau? Did its secretive violence alone have the power to destroy white supremacy?
Did Mau Mau aim at freedom for all Kenyans? Has the self-sacrificial victory of the poor been unjustly forgotten, and appropriated by the rich? We are determined to have independence in peace, and we shall not allow hooligans to rule Kenya.
We must have no hatred towards one another. Mau Mau was a disease which had been eradicated, and must never be remembered again.
State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. A Love for the Forest". The investigations of the Kenya Land Commission of — are a case study in such lack of foresight, for the findings and recommendations of this commission, particularly those regarding the claims of the Kikuyu of Kiambu, would serve to exacerbate other grievances and nurture the seeds of a growing African nationalism in Kenya".
You can read Dilke's speech in full here: Retrieved 11 April Naked spearmen fall in swathes before machine-guns, without inflicting a single casualty in return.
Meanwhile the troops burn all the huts and collect all the live stock within reach. Resistance once at an end, the leaders of the rebellion are surrendered for imprisonment.
Risings that followed such a course could hardly be repeated. A period of calm followed. And when unrest again appeared it was with other leaders.
Strayer 9 February The New York Times. Retrieved 20 March Elkins , p. The colonial state shared the desire of the European settler to encourage Africans into the labour market, whilst also sharing a concern to moderate the wages paid to workers".
Though finalised in , reserves were first instituted by the Crown Lands Ordinance of —see Ormsby-Gore , p. Retrieved 13 April Van Zwanenberg; Anne King An Economic History of Kenya and Uganda Histories of the Hanged.
The story of this 'psychic epidemic' and others like it were recounted over the years as evidence depicting the predisposition of Africans to episodic mass hysteria.
For his " magnum opus ", see Carothers Bloody history of Kenya conflict". Retrieved 12 May There was lots of suffering on the other side too.
This was a dirty war. It became a civil war—though that idea remains extremely unpopular in Kenya today. The quote is of Professor David Anderson.
Tell me where I'm wrong". London Review of Books. Retrieved 3 May The New York Review of Books. While Elstein regards the "requirement" for the "great majority of Kikuyu" to live inside "fortified villages" as "serv[ing] the purpose of protection", Professor David Anderson amongst others regards the "compulsory resettlement" of "1,, Kikuyu" inside what, for the "most" part, were "little more than concentration camps" as "punitive.
See Elstein's "Daniel Goldhagen and Kenya: UK government accepts abuse took place". Retrieved 29 May Walton , pp.
See also the relevant footnote, n. Retrieved 17 November — via National Library of Australia. The Sydney Morning Herald.
Retrieved 9 November — via National Library of Australia. Nearly three-quarters of the city's African male population of sixty thousand were Kikuyu, and most of these men, along with some twenty thousand Kikuyu women and children accompanying them, were allegedly 'active or passive supporters of Mau Mau'.
It is not known how many humans or animals were killed. Largely framed prior to the declaration of the State of Emergency in , but not implemented until two years later, this development is central to the story of Kenya's decolonization".
For Anderson, see his Histories of the Hanged , p. Time to say sorry". Retrieved 14 April They therefore confessed to British officers, and sought an early release from detention.
Other detainees refused to accept the British demand that they sully other people's reputations by naming those whom they knew to be involved in Mau Mau.
This 'hard core' kept their mouths closed, and languished for years in detention. The battle behind the wire was not fought over detainees' loyalty to a Mau Mau movement.
Detainees' intellectual and moral concerns were always close to home. British officials thought that those who confessed had broken their allegiance to Mau Mau.
But what moved detainees to confess was not their broken loyalty to Mau Mau, but their devotion to their families.
British officials played on this devotion to hasten a confession. The battle behind the wire was not fought between patriotic hard-core Mau Mau and weak-kneed, wavering, broken men who confessed.
Both hard core and soft core had their families in mind. The quiet whistleblowers on events in Kenya deserve praise".
It is debatable whether Peter Kenyatta was sympathetic to Mau Mau in the first place and therefore whether he truly switched sides. The Birth of Britain's Gulag.
Baring informed Lennox-Boyd that eight European officers were facing accusations of a series of murders, beatings and shootings. Anderson , p. The quote is of the colony's director of medical services.
Schemes of medical help, however desirable and however high their medical priority, could not in [these] circumstances be approved".
The quote is of Baring. Good, Bad or Unimportant? Journal of African Economies. Retrieved 8 March Solis 15 February The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War.
Histories of the Hanged: UK expresses regret over abuse as Mau Mau promised payout". Mau Mau and Kenya: An Analysis of a Peasant Revolt. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana: Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 6 December This episode is not mentioned in histories of the Mau Mau revolt, suggesting that such incidents were rare.
The post-colonial state must therefore be seen as a representation of the interests protected and promoted during the latter years of colonial rule.
Under Jomo Kenyatta, the post-colonial state represented a 'pact-of-domination' between transnational capital, the elite and the executive.
It was not that Mau Mau won its war against the British; guerrilla movements rarely win in military terms; and militarily Mau Mau was defeated.
But in order to crown peace with sustainable civil governance—and thus reopen a prospect of controlled decolonization—the British had to abandon 'multiracialism' and adopt African rule as their vision of Kenya's future.
The blood of Mau Mau, no matter how peculiarly ethnic in source and aim, was the seed of Kenya's all-African sovereignty.
Retrieved 30 May Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 26 May UK government cannot be held liable".
Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 18 March Sir Evelyn Baring, the Governor of Kenya, in a telegram to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, reported allegations of extreme brutality made against eight European district officers.
They included 'assault by beating up and burning of two Africans during screening [interrogation]' and one officer accused of 'murder by beating up and roasting alive of one African'.
No action was taken against the accused. Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 6 April A letter was sent to William Hague on March 31 stating: Squaring up to the seamier side of empire is long overdue".
Retrieved 27 July Mark Thompson 7 April These new documents were withheld because they were considered to be particularly sensitive, so we can but imagine what will be in these documents.
Senior members of the Commonwealth Office in London did know what was happening; senior legal officials in London did , to some extent, sanction the use of coercive force; and also, at Cabinet level, the Secretary of State for the Colonies certainly knew of the excesses that were taking place.
The quote is of Anderson. Retrieved 9 April In a statement to the court dated March 8, released to The Times yesterday, Martin Tucker, head of corporate records at the Foreign Office, reported that the 13 missing boxes could not be found.
He found evidence that the files had once been stored in the basement of the Old Admiralty Building in Whitehall, but traces of them had vanished after FCO transparency is a carefully cultivated myth".
Retrieved 7 May Kenyans win ruling against UK". Retrieved 6 May Under Kenyatta many became influential members of the new government.
This system of loyalist patronage percolated all the way down to the local level of government, with former Home Guards dominating bureaucracies that had once been the preserve of the young British colonial officers in the African districts.
Of the numerous vacancies created by decolonization—powerful posts like provincial commissioner and district commissioner—the vast majority were filled by one time loyalists.
Archived from the original pdf on 9 October Constitution of Kenya, National Council for Law Reporting.
Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 7 June Changing Kenyatta Day to Mashujaa Day is not just an innocuous and harmless exercise in constitutional semantics.
He acknowledged the part the freedom fighters had played in the struggle, but he never once made any public statement that conceded to them any rights or any genuine compensation.
Mau Mau was a thing best forgotten. In Kenyatta's Kenya there would be a deafening silence about Mau Mau". Rethinking the Mau Mau in Colonial Kenya.
Registration and Rough Justice". University of North Carolina Press. The Defence of the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5.
Atieno-Odhiambo, Elisha Stephen The Paradox of Mau Mau". Canadian Journal of African Studies. The Dialectic of Domination.
Fertility and Mortality in Kenya in the s: The Journal of African History. Defeating Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Counterinsurgency, Civil War, and Decolonization.
Understanding the Bureaucratic-Executive State, —78". Review of African Political Economy. The Giriama and Colonial Resistance in Kenya, — University of California Press.
Carothers, John Colin The African Mind in Health and Disease: A Study in Ethnopsychiatry. Carter, Morris; et al. Archived from the original PDF on 20 October History, Memory and Politics.
The Origins and Growth of Mau Mau: Britain's Real Role in the World. Henry Holt and Company. US edition ——— The Brutal End of Empire in Kenya.
UK edition ——— The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. Ellis, John . The Social History of the Machine Gun. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Emerson Welch, Claude State University of New York Press. The British Way in Counter-Insurgency, — The Mau Mau War in Perspective.
Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World. From the Cape to Cairo: The Logic of Violence in Civil War. East African Educational Publishers.
Squatters and the Roots of Mau Mau, — End of Empire revised ed. Journal of African Cultural Studies.
Arms, Authority and Narration. The Psychology of Rebellion: The Full Story of Mau Mau. An Analysis of a Peasant Revolt revised ed.
Conflict and Accommodation in Western Kenya: The Gusii and the British, — Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. McCulloch, Jock .
Colonial Psychiatry and "the African Mind" revised ed. The British Experience of Irregular Warfare. The 'Mau Mau' Rebellion, —".
Journal of Military and Strategic Studies. Archived from the original on 22 March Ogot, Bethwell Allan Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Ormsby-Gore, William ; et al.
Report of the East Africa Commission. Pen and Sword Books. In Kevin Shillington, ed. The Making of Kenya's Postcolonial Elite.
University of Wisconsin Press. The Development of Corporate Capitalism in Kenya, — Thiong'o, Ngugi wa . A Writer's Prison Diary". A Reader in Culture, History and Representation 2nd ed.
Kenya Europeans and the Land Issue — digital reprint ed. Fighting the Mau Mau: Berman, Bruce; Lonsdale, John Conflict in Kenya and Africa; Book One: Conflict in Kenya and Africa; Book Two: The First Triumph of the System, —".
Kenyan Chiefs and Politicians, — University Press of Colorado. Militant Anti-Colonialism in Africa and the West, — British Government Policy and Decolonisation, Scrutinising the Official Mind.
Henderson, Ian ; Goodhart, Philip Man Hunt in Kenya. Hewitt, Peter . Kariuki, Josiah Mwangi New York and London: The Politics of the Independence of Kenya.
Making Mau Mau and Remaking Kenya". Lovatt Smith, David Kenya, the Kikuyu and Mau Mau. The Memoirs of Lord Chandos. Marsh, Zoe; Kingsnorth, G. A History of East Africa.
Murphy, Philip . Party Politics and Decolonization: Archived from the original on 24 July Percox, David .
Britain, Kenya and the Cold War: Imperial Defence, Colonial Security and Decolonisation. Shilaro, Priscilla M In William Robert Ochieng.
Essays in Memory of Professor Gideon S. Economic and Social Origins of Mau Mau, — Retrieved from " https: Use British English from March Use dmy dates from March All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles to be expanded from April All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from April CS1 maint: Views Read Edit View history.