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And I have to admit, I was intoxicated by the chance to track down something totally new. Of course it was clear to us that we were dealing with one of the deadliest infectious diseases the world had ever seen -- and we had no idea that it was transmitted via bodily fluids!

It could also have been mosquitoes. We wore protective suits and latex gloves and I even borrowed a pair of motorcycle goggles to cover my eyes.

But in the jungle heat, it was impossible to use the gasmasks that we bought in Kinshasa. Even so, the Ebola patients I treated were probably just as shocked by my appearance as they were about their intense suffering.

I took blood from around 10 of these patients. I was most worried about accidentally poking myself with the needle and infecting myself that way.

Well, at some point I did actually develop a high fever, a headache and diarrhea I knew the symptoms I had could be from something completely different and harmless.

And it really would have been stupid to spend two weeks in the horrible isolation tent that had been set up for us scientists for the worst case.

So I just stayed alone in my room and waited. Of course I didn't get a wink of sleep, but luckily I began feeling better by the next day. It was just a gastrointestinal infection.

Actually, that is the best thing that can happen in your life: You look death in the eye, but survive. It changed my whole approach, my whole outlook on life at the time.

On that day, our team sat together late into the night -- we had also had a couple of drinks -- discussing the question.

We definitely didn't want to name the new pathogen "Yambuku virus" because that would have stigmatized the place forever. There was a map hanging on the wall and our American team leader suggested looking for the nearest river and giving the virus its name.

It was the Ebola River. So by around three or four in the morning, we had found a name. But the map was small and inexact.

We only learned later that the nearest river was actually a different one. But Ebola is a nice name, isn't it? In the end, you discovered that the Belgian nuns had unwittingly spread the virus.

How did that happen? In their hospital, they regularly gave pregnant women vitamin injections using unsterilized needles.

By doing so, they infected many young women in Yambuku with the Ebola virus. We told the nuns about the terrible mistake they had made, but looking back I would say that we were much too careful in our choice of words.

Clinics that failed to observe this and other rules of hygiene functioned as catalysts in all additional Ebola outbreaks.

They drastically sped up the spread of the virus or made the spread possible in the first place. Even in the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa, hospitals unfortunately played this ignominious role in the beginning.

But now, Ebola has caught up to you again. American scientists fear that hundreds of thousands of people could ultimately become infected.

Was such an epidemic to be expected? No, not at all. On the contrary, I always thought that Ebola, in comparison to AIDS or malaria -- didn't present much of a problem because the outbreaks were always brief and local.

Around June it became clear to me that there was something fundamentally different about this outbreak. At about the same time, the aid organization Doctors Without Borders sounded the alarm.

We Flemish tend to be rather unemotional, but it was at that point that I began to get really worried. On the one hand, it was because their African regional office isn't staffed with the most capable people but with political appointees.

And the headquarters in Geneva suffered large budget cuts that had been agreed to by member states. The department for hemorrhagic fever and the one responsible for the management of epidemic emergencies were hit hard.

But since August, WHO has regained a leadership role. There is actually a well-established procedure for curtailing Ebola outbreaks: How could a catastrophe such as the one we are now seeing even happen?

I think it is what people call a perfect storm: And with this epidemic, there were many factors that were disadvantageous from the very beginning.

Some of the countries involved were just emerging from terrible civil wars, many of their doctors had fled and their healthcare systems had collapsed.

In all of Liberia, for example, there were only 51 doctors in , and many of them have since died of Ebola.

The fact that the outbreak began in the densely populated border region between Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia Because the people there are extremely mobile, it was much more difficult than usual to track down those who had had contact with the infected people.

Because the dead in this region are traditionally buried in the towns and villages they were born in, there were highly contagious Ebola corpses traveling back and forth across the borders in pick-ups and taxis.

From the perspective of a virus, it isn't desirable for its host, within which the pathogen hopes to multiply, to die so quickly.

It would be much better for the virus to allow us to stay alive longer. Could the virus suddenly change itself such that it could be spread through the air?

Like measles you mean? Luckily, that is extremely unlikely. But a mutation that would allow Ebola patients to live a couple of weeks longer is certainly possible and would be advantageous for the virus.

But that would allow Ebola patients to infect many, many more people than is currently the case. But it is just one of many possible ways the virus could change to spread itself more easily.

And it is clear that the virus is mutating. You and two colleagues wrote a piece for the Wall Street Journal supporting the testing of experimental drugs.

Do you think that could be the solution? Patients could probably be treated most quickly with blood serum from Ebola survivors, even if that would likely be extremely difficult given the chaotic local conditions.

We need to find out now if these methods, or if experimental drugs like ZMapp, really help. But we should definitely not rely entirely on new treatments.

For most people, they will come too late in this epidemic. But if they help, they should be made available for the next outbreak. Testing of two vaccines is also beginning.

It will take a while, of course, but could it be that only a vaccine can stop the epidemic? In Zaire during that first outbreak, a hospital with poor hygiene was responsible for spreading the illness.

Today, almost 40 years later, almost the same thing is happening again, just much worse. Was Louis Pasteur right when he said: Of course we are a long way away from declaring victory over bacteria and viruses.

HIV is still here; in London alone, five gay men become infected daily. An increasing number of bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics.

And I can still see the Ebola patients in Yambuku how they died in their shacks and we couldn't do anything except let them die. In principle, it's still the same today.

That is very depressing. But it also provides me with a strong motivation to do something. And that is why I am doing everything I can to convince the powerful in this world to finally send sufficient help to West Africa.

In , he wrote the book "No Time to Lose: A Life in Pursuit of Deadly Viruses. One of his professors once warned him against a career in virology, saying that viruses and bacteria had basically been conquered.

Discuss this issue with other readers! Show all comments Page 1. Piot perhaps is not a Nobel scientist, but is a right one to listen to, because every first hand fact is maybe the virologic truth to come, that, unlikely what is said, we don't know.

It will be difficult to make any significant progress against fighting the Ebola virus as long as the governments of those countries most afflicted continue to deny and subvert the aid that is being offered, regardless of how many [ It will be difficult to make any significant progress against fighting the Ebola virus as long as the governments of those countries most afflicted continue to deny and subvert the aid that is being offered, regardless of how many doctors and medical personnel are sent.

Hundreds of thousands of Africans will most likely die in the next few months

Nothing happened to any of us. Joel Breman Peter Piot, second from left, on site in Yambuku during the first Ebola outbreak in Yes, and our first thought was: It had no similarities with yellow fever.

Rather, it looked like the extremely dangerous Marburg virus, which, like Ebola, causes a hemorrhagic fever. In the s, the virus killed several laboratory workers in Marburg, Germany.

I knew almost nothing about the Marburg virus at the time. When I tell my students about it today, they think I must come from the Stone Age.

But I actually had to go the library and look it up in an atlas of virology. It was the American Centers for Disease Control which determined a short time later that it wasn't the Marburg virus, but a related, unknown virus.

We had also learned in the meantime that hundreds of people had already succumbed to the virus in Yambuku and the area around it. The nun who had passed away and her fellow sisters were all from Belgium.

In Yambuku, which had been part of the colony Belgian Congo, they operated a small, mission hospital.

When the Belgian government decided to send someone, I volunteered immediately. I was 27 and felt a bit like my childhood hero Tintin.

And I have to admit, I was intoxicated by the chance to track down something totally new. Of course it was clear to us that we were dealing with one of the deadliest infectious diseases the world had ever seen -- and we had no idea that it was transmitted via bodily fluids!

It could also have been mosquitoes. We wore protective suits and latex gloves and I even borrowed a pair of motorcycle goggles to cover my eyes. But in the jungle heat, it was impossible to use the gasmasks that we bought in Kinshasa.

Even so, the Ebola patients I treated were probably just as shocked by my appearance as they were about their intense suffering.

I took blood from around 10 of these patients. I was most worried about accidentally poking myself with the needle and infecting myself that way.

Well, at some point I did actually develop a high fever, a headache and diarrhea I knew the symptoms I had could be from something completely different and harmless.

And it really would have been stupid to spend two weeks in the horrible isolation tent that had been set up for us scientists for the worst case.

So I just stayed alone in my room and waited. Of course I didn't get a wink of sleep, but luckily I began feeling better by the next day.

It was just a gastrointestinal infection. Actually, that is the best thing that can happen in your life: You look death in the eye, but survive.

It changed my whole approach, my whole outlook on life at the time. On that day, our team sat together late into the night -- we had also had a couple of drinks -- discussing the question.

We definitely didn't want to name the new pathogen "Yambuku virus" because that would have stigmatized the place forever. There was a map hanging on the wall and our American team leader suggested looking for the nearest river and giving the virus its name.

It was the Ebola River. So by around three or four in the morning, we had found a name. But the map was small and inexact.

We only learned later that the nearest river was actually a different one. But Ebola is a nice name, isn't it? In the end, you discovered that the Belgian nuns had unwittingly spread the virus.

How did that happen? In their hospital, they regularly gave pregnant women vitamin injections using unsterilized needles.

By doing so, they infected many young women in Yambuku with the Ebola virus. We told the nuns about the terrible mistake they had made, but looking back I would say that we were much too careful in our choice of words.

Clinics that failed to observe this and other rules of hygiene functioned as catalysts in all additional Ebola outbreaks. They drastically sped up the spread of the virus or made the spread possible in the first place.

Even in the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa, hospitals unfortunately played this ignominious role in the beginning.

But now, Ebola has caught up to you again. American scientists fear that hundreds of thousands of people could ultimately become infected.

Was such an epidemic to be expected? No, not at all. On the contrary, I always thought that Ebola, in comparison to AIDS or malaria -- didn't present much of a problem because the outbreaks were always brief and local.

Around June it became clear to me that there was something fundamentally different about this outbreak. I am more worried about the many people from India who work in trade or industry in West Africa.

It would only take one of them to become infected, travel to India to visit relatives during the virus' incubation period and then, once he becomes sick, go to a public hospital there.

Doctors and nurses in India, too, often don't wear protective gloves. They would immediately become infected and spread the virus.

The virus is continually changing its genetic makeup. The more people who become infected, the greater the chance becomes that it will mutate Yes, that really is the apocalyptic scenario.

Humans are actually just an accidental host for the virus, and not a good one. From the perspective of a virus, it isn't desirable for its host, within which the pathogen hopes to multiply, to die so quickly.

It would be much better for the virus to allow us to stay alive longer. Could the virus suddenly change itself such that it could be spread through the air?

Like measles you mean? Luckily, that is extremely unlikely. But a mutation that would allow Ebola patients to live a couple of weeks longer is certainly possible and would be advantageous for the virus.

But that would allow Ebola patients to infect many, many more people than is currently the case. But it is just one of many possible ways the virus could change to spread itself more easily.

And it is clear that the virus is mutating. You and two colleagues wrote a piece for the Wall Street Journal supporting the testing of experimental drugs.

Do you think that could be the solution? Patients could probably be treated most quickly with blood serum from Ebola survivors, even if that would likely be extremely difficult given the chaotic local conditions.

We need to find out now if these methods, or if experimental drugs like ZMapp, really help. But we should definitely not rely entirely on new treatments.

For most people, they will come too late in this epidemic. But if they help, they should be made available for the next outbreak.

Testing of two vaccines is also beginning. It will take a while, of course, but could it be that only a vaccine can stop the epidemic? In Zaire during that first outbreak, a hospital with poor hygiene was responsible for spreading the illness.

Today, almost 40 years later, almost the same thing is happening again, just much worse. Was Louis Pasteur right when he said: Of course we are a long way away from declaring victory over bacteria and viruses.

HIV is still here; in London alone, five gay men become infected daily. An increasing number of bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics.

And I can still see the Ebola patients in Yambuku how they died in their shacks and we couldn't do anything except let them die. In principle, it's still the same today.

That is very depressing. But it also provides me with a strong motivation to do something. And that is why I am doing everything I can to convince the powerful in this world to finally send sufficient help to West Africa.

In , he wrote the book "No Time to Lose:

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